What Trotsky counterposed to war communism, NEP, and Stalin’s forced-march industrialisation; monetary policies for a workers’ state; a novel about life in 1930s Moscow
A generalisation by Marx on “the hidden basis of the entire social structure”, and related passages from Trotsky and Shachtman
the substantive question of whether the Stalinist bureaucracy crystallised into an exploiting class is often obscured rather than clarified by arguments about summary descriptive phrases for the whole system (“degenerated workers’ state”, “bureaucratic collectivism”, “state capitalism”)
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