The bureaucracy: a class, or not a class?

the substantive question of whether the Stalinist bureaucracy crystallised into an exploiting class is often obscured rather than clarified by arguments about summary descriptive phrases for the whole system (“degenerated workers’ state”, “bureaucratic collectivism”, “state capitalism”)

Rakovsky on the Stalinist state

“From a proletarian state with bureaucratic deformations, we are passing to a bureaucratic state with proletarian communist survivals”


The Stakhanov movement of the mid-30s gave a minority of workers high pay and promotion to managerial jobs at the expense of the majority

Inflation in Stalinist Russia

By 1936, prices were about seven times 1928 levels. In the early 30s prices in collective farm markets had been twice as high again, or more.


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